26.12.2012

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Announcements / Press Releases

End of the Year Message from the RBM Partnership Executive Director [RBM] — (English)
As we all draw near to our families for the holiday season, allow me to thank you all for playing your part in the group of organizations that comprise the Roll Back Malaria Partnership...

UN Press Briefing on the Occasion of the Launch of the WHO World Malaria Report 2012 [UN WEB TV] — (English)
Mr Ray Chambers, Special Envoy of the UN Secretary General, and Dr Fatoumata Nafo-Traore, Roll Back Malaria Partnership Executive Director, at UN Press Briefing...

Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test Performance [WHO/GMP] — (English)
Results of WHO product testing of malaria RDTs: Round 4 (2012)...

Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the WHO: conclusions and recommendations of September 2012 meeting [Malaria Journal 2012, 11:424 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-424] — (English)
The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization met in Geneva, Switzerland from 11 to 13 September, 2012. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and recommendations from that meeting...

Director of the UN Foundation’s Nothing But Nets Campaign Urges Continued Funding, Bed Nets to Fight Malaria in Africa [Nothing But Nets] — (English)
Chris Helfrich calls on partners and governments to sustain the gains made in ending malaria deaths...

MMV: IT Support Technician [MMV] — (English)
Application deadline: 13 January 2013...

MMV: Assessing potential demand for intra-rectal artesunate [MMV] — (English)
Application deadline: 15 January 2013...

PSI: Principal investigator, ACTwatch and diagnostics in private sector research Department: Malaria and Child Survival (MCSD) [PSI] — (English)
To view the job description and apply online, please visit PSI career center...

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Articles requiring subscription or registration

Plasmodium falciparum  heat shock protein 110 stabilizes the asparagine repeat-rich parasite proteome during malarial fevers [Nature Communications 3, Article number: 1310 doi:10.1038/ncomms2306] — (English)
Here we report that a Plasmodium Asn repeat-containing protein (PFI1155w) formed aggregates in mammalian cells at febrile temperatures, as did a yeast Asn/Gln-rich protein (Sup35)...

Directionally selected cytochrome P450 alleles are driving the spread of pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus [PNAS December 17, 2012 201216705] — (English)
Here, we show that increased expression of two tandemly duplicated P450 genes, CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b, is the main mechanism driving pyrethroid resistance in Malawi and Mozambique, two southern African countries where this insecticide class forms the mainstay of malaria control...

Genetic loci associated with delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum following artemisinin treatment in Southeast Asia [PNAS December 17, 2012 201211205] — (English)
Parasite genotypes were examined for signatures of recent positive selection and association with parasite clearance phenotypes to identify regions of the genome associated with artemisinin resistance...

Mosquito Species Composition and Plasmodium vivax infection Rates for Korean Army Bases near the Demilitarized Zone in the Republic of Korea, 2011 [Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012 11-0755] — (English)
This is the first report implicating An. sineroides as a vector of P. vivax in the ROK, and extends our knowledge of the distribution and potential role in malaria transmission...

Molecular Taxonomy of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi (Diptera: Culicidae) and Malaria Epidemiology in Southern Amazonian Peru [Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012 12-0429] — (English)
Anopheline specimens were collected in 2011 by human landing catch, Shannon and CDC traps from the malaria endemic localities of Santa Rosa and San Pedro in Madre de Dios Department, Peru...

Translational Control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma Parasites [EC.00296-12] — (English)
This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2α) subunit...

Fight against malaria slowed in 2012 as funding fell [BMJ 2012; 345 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e8569] — (English)
otal funding for malaria control (domestic and international) is projected to remain at less than $2.7bn between 2013 and 2015, substantially below the $5.1bn needed to achieve universal coverage of antimalarial ...

Prevalence of PCR Detectable Malaria Infection among Febrile Patients with a Negative Plasmodium falciparum Specific Rapid Diagnostic Test in Zanzibar [Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012 12-0095] — (English)
We screened for malaria in 594 blood samples from febrile patients who tested negative by a Plasmodium falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein-2-based rapid diagnostic test at 12 health facilities in Zanzibar districts North A and Micheweni, from May to August 2010...

Incidence of Malaria among Mosquito Collectors Conducting Human Landing Catches in Western Kenya [Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012 12-0209] — (English)
We estimated the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in a cohort of 152 persons conducting HLCs and compared it with that of 147 non-collectors in western Kenya...

Genetic Variability in Platelet Integrin α2β1 Density: Possible Contributor to Plasmodium vivax–induced Severe Thrombocytopenia [Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012 12-0297] — (English)
This evidence of the association of integrin polymorphism and P. vivax morbidity was further demonstrated by a moderate but significant correlation between clinical disease and surface levels of the integrin α2β1...

A Community-Wide Study of Malaria Reduction: Evaluating Efficacy and User-Acceptance of a Low-Cost Repellent in Northern Ghana [Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012 12-0370] — (English)
NO MAS (NM) mosquito repellent was evaluated in two farming villages (4 km apart) in the Kassena Nankana district of northern Ghana...

Intrasplenic immunization with infected hepatocytes: a mouse model for studying protective immunity against malaria pre-erythrocytic stage [Immunology, Volume 138, Issue 1, page 83, January 2013] — (English)
By Rénia L, Rodrigues MM, Nussenzweig V....

The enigma of memory B cells in malaria [European Journal of Immunology, Volume 42, Issue 12, pages 3146–3149, December 2012] — (English)
In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Wykes and colleagues [Eur. J. Immunol. 2012. 42: 3291–3301] demonstrate that experimental malaria infection lowers the expression of B-cell-activating factor in DCs, thereby compromising the ability of these DCs to stimulate memory B cells and sustain the survival of Ab-secreting cells. These findings provide potential clues in the quest for better understanding of immunity to malaria as discussed in this Commentary...

Evaluation of the Performances of Two Rapid Diagnostic Tests (Cyscope®mini and Paracheck-Pf®) in the Diagnosis of Malaria among Febrile Children in Southwest Nigeria [Med Princ Pract (DOI: 10.1159/000345642)] — (English)
The aim of this study was to test the diagnostic performances of Cyscope®mini and Paracheck-Pf® for Plasmodium falciparum relative to microscopy...

Analysing malaria drug trials on a per-individual or per-clone basis: a comparison of methods [Statistics in Medicine, DOI: 10.1002/sim.5706] — (English)
We evaluate currently used methods for analysing malaria trials on a per-individual basis and introduce a novel method to estimate the cure rate on a per-infection (clone) basis. We used simulated and real data to highlight the differences of the various methods...

Chronic Exposure to Plasmodium falciparum Is Associated with Phenotypic Evidence of B and T Cell Exhaustion [The Journal of Immunology, 1202438] — (English)
We took advantage of a "natural" experiment near Kilifi, Kenya, and compared profiles of B and T cells of children living in a rural community where P. falciparum transmission is ongoing to the profiles of age-matched children living under similar conditions in a nearby community where P. falciparum transmission ceased 5 y prior to this study...

Human IGF1 extends lifespan and enhances resistance to Plasmodium falciparum infection in the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi [J Exp Biol 216, 208-217] — (English)
Here we demonstrate that physiological levels of ingested IGF1, like insulin, can persist intact in the blood-filled midgut for up to 30 h and disseminate into the mosquito body, and that both peptides activate IIS in mosquito cells and midgut...

The sugar meal of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Giles) and how deterrent compounds interfere with it: a behavioural and neurophysiological study [The Journal of Experimental Biology, doi: 10.1242/​jeb.076588] — (English)
In this study, we show that female African malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae (Giles) starved for 3-5 hours start to engorge on sucrose at concentrations between 50 to 75 mM...

Salivary gland proteome of the human malaria vector, Anopheles campestris-like (Diptera: Culicidae) [Parasitology Research, December 2012] — (English)
In this study, A. campestris-like salivary gland proteins were determined and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...

n vivo therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine alone or in combination with primaquine in vivax malaria in Kolkata, West Bengal, India and polymorphism in pvmdr1 and pvcrt-0 genes [AAC.02050-12] — (English)
The present study was undertaken to determine the in vivo efficacy of chloroquine and chloroquine plus primaquine in P. vivax malaria in Kolkata and polymorphisms in pvmdr1 and pvcrt-0 genes...

Randomized, Open Label Trial of Primaquine Against Vivax Malaria Relapse in Indonesia [AAC.01879-12] — (English)
Anti-relapse therapy with primaquine begun a month after treatment of the acute attack with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine proved safe and highly efficacious against relapse by P. vivax acquired in Papua, Indonesia...

Interactions of Anopheles gambiae odorant binding proteins with a human-derived repellent: implications for the mode of action of DEET [jbc.M112.436386] — (English)
Here we present the crystal structure of Anopheles gambiae OBP1 (OBP1) in the complex it forms with a natural repellent 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one (6-MH)...

Stability and bifurcation analysis of a vector-bias model of malaria transmission [Mathematical Biosciences] — (English)
The vector-bias model of malaria transmission, recently proposed by Chamchod and Britton, is considered. Nonlinear stability analysis is performed by means of the Lyapunov theory and the LaSalle Invariance Principle...

Impact of enhanced malaria control on the competition between Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in India [Mathematical Biosciences] — (English)
We developed a mathematical model describing the dynamics of P. vivax and P. falciparum in the human and mosquito populations and fit this model to Indian clinical case data to understand how enhanced control measures affect the competition between the two Plasmodium species...

Complement activation in primiparous women from a malaria endemic area is associated with reduced birthweight [Placenta] — (English)
In this study we analyzed whether complement activation as a mediator of inflammation could contribute to poor pregnancy outcome in PM...

The role of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) in lung pathology during experimental malaria [International Journal for Parasitology] — (English)
PAFR activation is crucial in the pathogenesis of pulmonary damage associated with PbA infection in C57Bl/6 mice...

Red Blood Cell Membrane Dynamics during Malaria Parasite Egress [Biophysical Journal, Volume 103, Issue 12, 2475-2483, doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2012.11.008] — (English)
Based on this work, showing that parasites modify the membrane's spontaneous curvature, initiating pore opening and outward membrane curling, we develop a model of the dynamics of the red blood cell membrane leading to complete parasite egress...

Mathematics and malaria [eLife. 2012; 1: e00385.] — (English)
Populations of malaria parasites are strongly influenced by their interactions with human immunity, and a better understanding of these interactions can help to explain why the risks from this potentially lethal disease vary according to location and age...

Skin-draining lymph node priming is sufficient to induce sterile immunity against pre-erythrocytic malaria [EMBO Molecular Medicine, DOI: 10.1002/emmm.201201677] — (English)
We wished to establish if sterile protection could be obtained in the absence of priming by infected hepatocytes. To this end, we developed a subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization protocol where few, possibly none, of the immunizing irradiated Plasmodium yoelii sporozoites infect hepatocytes, and also used CD81-deficient mice non-permissive to productive hepatocyte infections...

Dynamic deformability of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes exposed to artesunate in vitro [ntegr. Biol., 2013, DOI: 10.1039/C2IB20161E] — (English)
We investigated ART's influence on the dynamic deformability of ring-stage Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells (iRBCs) in order to elucidate its role in cellular mechanobiology...

The Cinderella syndrome: why do malaria-infected cells burst at midnight? [Trends Parasitol. 2012 Dec 16. pii: S1471-4922(12)00184-5. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2012.10.006] — (English)
We argue that for malaria parasites, a critical question has yet to be answered: is the coordination due to parasites bursting at the same time or at a particular time? We explicitly delineate these fundamentally different scenarios, possible underlying mechanistic explanations and evolutionary drivers, and discuss the existing corroborating data and key evidence needed to solve this evolutionary mystery...

Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes and failure of malaria control [Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy December 2012, Vol. 10, No. 12, Pages 1379-1381 , DOI 10.1586/eri.12.141 (doi:10.1586/eri.12.141)] — (English)
The paper under evaluation demonstrates that these efforts should be evaluated regularly as sometimes multifaceted interventions are not more effective that one single targeted intervention which is costless. Moreover, the increasing antimalarial drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin, the almost complete resistance of mosquitoes to pyrethroid, the likely zoonotic nature of P. falciparum and the behavioral changes of mosquitoes are many new features that indicate that malaria control is not yet achieved...

Murine infection models for vaccine development: The malaria example [Landes Biouscience Volume 9, Issue 3 March 2013] — (English)
Here, opportunities from integrating challenge experiments with murine Plasmodium parasites into malaria vaccine development will be discussed...