10.12.2012

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Announcements / Press Releases

RBM Partnership calls for US$2.4 billion to avert potential malaria resurgence in sub-Saharan Africa [RBM Press release] — (English)
The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM) Board concluded its 23rd meeting in Senegal with an urgent call to governments of malaria endemic countries and development partners to secure the US$2.4 billion needed over the next two years to maintain high levels of coverage with life-saving malaria prevention and treatment interventions in eight African countries. This call follows a decade of success where malaria deaths have fallen by over one-third in sub-Saharan Africa...

New RBM Board Vice chair and Executive Committee Chair elected [RBM] — (English)
Prof. Graham V Brown, Director, Nossal Institute for Global Health...

UNITAID New grants total US$ 120 million [UNITAID Press Release] — (English)
UNITAID has made new grants to allow hundreds of thousands of children in developing countries to access better and more affordable medicines for HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis (TB)...

Assessing potential demand for intra-rectal artesunate [MMV] — (English)
Request for proposals. Deadline: 15 January 2013...

MMV: Director, External Relations [MMV] — (English)
Application deadline: 21 December 2012...

PSI: Principal investigator, ACTwatch and diagnostics in private sector research Department: Malaria and Child Survival (MCSD) [PSI] — (English)
To view the job description and apply online, please visit PSI career center...

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Articles requiring subscription or registration

Platelet Factor 4 and Duffy Antigen Required for Platelet Killing of Plasmodium falciparum [Science 7 December 2012: Vol. 338 no. 6112 pp. 1348-1351 DOI: 10.1126/science.1228892] — (English)
Platelets restrict the growth of intraerythrocytic malaria parasites by binding to parasitized cells and killing the parasite within. Here, we show that the platelet molecule platelet factor 4 (PF4 or CXCL4) and the erythrocyte Duffy-antigen receptor (Fy) are necessary for platelet-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. PF4 is released by platelets on contact with parasitized red cells, and the protein directly kills intraerythrocytic parasites. This function for PF4 is critically dependent on Fy, which binds PF4. Genetic disruption of Fy expression inhibits binding of PF4 to parasitized cells and concomitantly prevents parasite killing by both human platelets and recombinant human PF4. The protective function afforded by platelets during a malarial infection may therefore be compromised in Duffy-negative individuals, who do not express Fy...

Factors determining the occurrence of submicroscopic malaria infections and their relevance for control [Nature Communications 3, Article number: 1237 doi:10.1038/ncomms2241] — (English)
Here we analyse a series of data sets to characterize the distribution and epidemiological factors associated with low-density, submicroscopic infections...

Still Seeking an Effective "One–Two" Malaria Vaccine Punch [Molecular Therapy 20, 2198-2200 (December 2012) doi:10.1038/mt.2012.241] — (English)
Vaccine development has been complicated by the biology of the eukaryotic malaria parasite that causes chronic or repeated infections and has evolved sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms during its multistage life cycle...

Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ Exchanger (Pfnhe-1) Genetic Polymorphism in Indian Ocean Malaria-Endemic Areas [Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012 12-0359] — (English)
Additional studies are required to better define the mechanisms underlying quinine resistance, which involve multiple gene interactions...

Antimalaria Action of Antiretroviral Drugs on Plasmodium berghei in Mice [Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012 11-0209] — (English)
Activity of the antiretroviral dugs lamivudine (L), zidovudine (Z), nevirapine (N), and stavudine (S) against Plasmodium berghei inoculated into 70 adult albino mice was investigated...

Is Serial Testing Required to Diagnose Imported Malaria in the Era of Rapid Diagnostic Tests? [Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012 11-0674] — (English)
Our data suggest that among patients who have not received recent anti-malarial therapy, and when RDTs are performed and blood films are prepared, most malaria diagnoses are made by using the first set of tests...

ART regimen protects children from malaria [BMJ 2012; 345 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e8214] — (English)
A preliminary trial from Uganda suggests that some antiretroviral treatments (ART) for HIV can also help prevent malaria in children. Children treated for HIV with a regimen based on lopinavir and ritonavir had significantly fewer episodes of falciparum malaria than controls treated...

A Novel Domain Cassette Identifies Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1 Proteins Binding ICAM-1 and Is a Target of Cross-Reactive, Adhesion-Inhibitory Antibodies [The Journal of Immunology December 3, 2012 1202578] — (English)
Our study challenges earlier conclusions that group A PfEMP1 proteins are not central to ICAM-1–specific IE adhesion and support the feasibility of developing a vaccine preventing cerebral malaria by inhibiting cerebral IE sequestration...

Mefloquine exposure induces cell cycle delay and reveals stage-specific expression of the pfmdr1 gene [AAC.01006-12] — (English)
To understand the relationship between pfmdr1 CN and mefloquine resistance, we evaluated pfmdr1 transcript levels in three P. falciparum strains with different CN in the presence and absence of MFQ...

Assessing the cost-benefit effect of a Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance mutation on parasite growth in vitro [AAC.00950-12] — (English)
We herein present an in vitro model showing how this combined effect on parasite growth varies with the drug concentration and suggest a calculated drug specific cost-benefit index, indicating the possible advantage for mutated parasites...

Chemobiosynthesis of new antimalarial macrolides [AAC.01825-12] — (English)
We have synthesized new derivatives of the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin and azithromycin...

Preclinical evaluation of pregnancy malaria vaccine immunogens: a multi-laboratory approach [IAI.01106-12] — (English)
In this study, a consortium of laboratories under the Pregnancy Malaria Initiative compared functional activity of anti-adhesion antibodies elicited by different VAR2CSA domains and variants produced in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems...

Paludisme grave d'importation à Plasmodium falciparum traité par artésunate [Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2012 Dec 1;70(6):733-740] — (French)
Le paludisme à Plasmodium falciparum est une maladie infectieuse potentiellement mortelle, imposant un diagnostic biologique sûr et rapide, une prise en charge thérapeutique précoce et efficace. À partir d'un cas clinique de paludisme grave d'importation à Plasmodium falciparum ayant bénéficié d'un traitement par artésunate, les différents moyens diagnostiques du paludisme sont revus, ainsi que les caractéristiques clinico-biologiques du paludisme grave. Les récentes avancées concernant la prise en charge thérapeutique du paludisme par dérivés de l'artémisinine sont également présentées, ainsi qu'une étude pharmacocinétique menée au cours de ce cas clinique...

Toxicity of essential oil from Indian borage on the larvae of the African malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae [Parasites & Vectors 2012, 5:277 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-277] — (English)
The larvicidal efficacy shown by plant extracts against An. gambiae should be tested in semi field and small scale trials for effective compounds to supplement the existing larval control tools...

Malaria infection increases bird attractiveness to uninfected mosquitoes [Ecology Letters DOI: 10.1111/ele.12041] — (English)
Here, we investigate whether a Plasmodium infection renders the host more attractive to host-seeking mosquitoes...

Low Levels of Some Nutritional Parameters of Pregnant Women in a Rural Community of South East Nigeria: Implications for the Attainment of the Millennium Developmental Goal [Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2012 Jan-Jun; 2(1): 49–55. doi: 10.4103/2141-9248.96939] — (English)
There is a general decrease in the nutrition parameters studied among the pregnant women from our study area, indicating under-nutrition. Urgent measures should be taken to improve the nutritional status of rural dwellers especially the antioxidant micronutrients...

Malaria patient CYP2C8 status influences selection of P. falciparum pfmdr1 alleles after amodiaquine-artesunate treatment [J Infect Dis. (2012) doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis736] — (English)
By Cavaco I, Mårtensson A, Fröberg G, Mselllem M, Björkman A, Gil JP...

Molecular Basis of Allele-Specific Efficacy of a Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine: Vaccine Development Implications [J Infect Dis. (2012) doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis709] — (English)
We assessed the cross-protective efficacy of the malaria vaccine and inferred which polymorphic amino acid positions in AMA1 were the targets of protective allele-specific immune responses...

Control and Elimination of Plasmodium vivax [Advances in Parasitology Volume 80, 2012, Pages 301–341] — (English)
New interventions will likely be required to eliminate vivax malaria; highly desirable new products include transmission-blocking vaccines, new drug combinations to treat chloroquine resistant strains and a safe, long-lasting 8-aminoquinoline...

Chemotherapeutic Strategies for Reducing Transmission of Plasmodium vivax Malaria [Advances in Parasitology Volume 80, 2012, Pages 271–300] — (English)
An efficacious hypnozoitocidal agent with a short curative treatment course would be particularly useful in mass drug administration campaigns...

Diagnosis and Treatment of Plasmodium vivax Malaria [Advances in Parasitology Volume 80, 2012, Pages 203–270] — (English)
Development of safe and effective chemotherapies for vivax malaria for the coming decades requires overcoming these challenges...

Plasmodium vivax: Clinical Spectrum, Risk Factors and Pathogenesis [Advances in Parasitology Volume 80, 2012, Pages 151–201] — (English)
Mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe vivax syndromes remain incompletely understood...

The Global Public Health Significance of Plasmodium vivax [Advances in Parasitology Volume 80, 2012, Pages 1–111 — (English)
Here, we review the evidence of the biological limits of its contemporary distribution and the global population at risk (PAR) of the disease within endemic countries. We also review the most recent evidence for the endemic level of transmission within its range and discuss the implications for burden of disease assessments...

Increased prevalence of dhfr and dhps mutants at delivery in Malawian pregnant women receiving intermittent preventive treatment for malaria [Tropical Medicine & International Health DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12028] — (English)
These results lend support to concerns that IPTp use may lead to increased drug resistance in pregnant women during pregnancy and emphasise the importance of screening pregnant women for malaria parasites in areas with prevalent SP resistance even when they are already on IPTp...